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  • PO Box 2800, Peterborough, Ontario, K9J 8L5
  • 705-748-6324 EXT 237

Extirpation & Early Recovery Efforts

The first efforts to maintain or even restore the declining Atlantic Salmon population of Lake Ontario, one of the first species in Canada to be decimated by human activities, were made by Samuel Wilmot. In 1866 he established the first government-sponsored fish hatchery in North America in Newcastle, Ontario. His efforts seemed to initially pay off, as population increases were observed in many streams. However, the numbers fell again, and by 1881 observers were reporting very few fish. The species was officially declared extirpated (locally extinct) from Lake Ontario in 1896, and the last reliable report of a harvested Atlantic Salmon from the area was in 1898.

Prior to extirpation, the popularity of Lake Ontario Atlantic Salmon led to its stocking in two rivers in Maine. The Sheepscot River population still exists, albeit in very low numbers, but river stocking from numerous strains means that there is very little chance there are any Lake Ontario genetics left in this population. The Cobscook River population is believed to be extinct or nearly extinct. Between 1877 and 1899 Lake Ontario Atlantic Salmon were also shipped to England, but no evidence exists that the strain remains there.

Additionally, the now-extirpated Sebago Lake (Maine) Atlantic Salmon population is either the result of a direct stocking of fish from Lake Ontario, or derived subsequently from Lake Ontario stocks planted elsewhere. Interestingly, fish from eggs from Sebago Lake were successfully stocked in lakes in Argentina from 1904-1910, and it was hoped a final remnant of Lake Ontario’s population may have still existed in South America, but recent genetic analyses have found no relationship.

In Ontario, the next effort to restore Atlantic Salmon was undertaken by the Department of Lands and Forests (MNRF’s predecessor) in the 1940s using Miramichi (New Brunswick) stock. After five years of stocking, mortalities were still significant from high summer stream temperatures and predation upon juvenile Atlantic Salmon, and the attempt was stopped. Sporadic stocking occurred up until 1964 without success, and efforts were halted as the entire ecosystem was considered too degraded to make restoration likely. It was not until 1985 that the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (NYSDEC) again attempted to stock Atlantic Salmon into Lake Ontario.